1. Agronomy: Deals with the production of various crops which includes food crops, fodder crops, fibre crops, sugar, oil seeds, etc. The aim is to have better food production and how to control the diseases. 
  2. Horticulture: Deals with the production of fruits, vegetables, flowers, ornamental plants, spices, condiments and beverages. 
  3. Forestry: Deals with production of large scale cultivation of perennial trees for supplying wood, timber, rubber, etc. and also raw materials for industries. 
  4. Animal husbandry: Deals with agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock in order to provide food for humans and to provide power (draught) and manure for crops. 
  5. Fishery Science: Deals with practice of breeding and rearing fishes including marine and inland fishes, shrimps, prawns etc. in order to provide food, feed and manure. 
  6. Agricultural Engineering: Deals with farm machinery for filed preparation, inter-cultivation, harvesting and post harvest processing including soil and water conservation engineering and bio-energy. 
  7. Home Science: Deals with application and utilization of agricultural produces in a better manner in order to provide nutritional security, including value addition and food preparation.
  8. Plant Breeding and Genetics: Deals with crop improvement methods and various technologies involved.
  9. Pathology: Deals with plant diseases, their symptoms, causes and treatment.
  10. Entomology: Deals with study of morphology, life-cycle, behaviour and control of insects of agricultural importance, including beneficial insects and pests including both field and storage pests.

Agriculture: Introduction and Scope


  • The term Agriculture is derived from two Latin words ager or agri meaning soil and cultura meaning cultivation. 
  • Agriculture is an applied science which encompasses all aspects of crop production including horticulture, livestock rearing, fisheries, forestry, etc. 
  • Agriculture is defined as an art, science and business of producing crops and livestock for economic purposes.

  • With a 16% contribution to the gross domestic product (GDP), agriculture still provides livelihood support to about two-thirds of country's population
  • The sector provides employment to 58% of country's work force and is the single largest private sector occupation. 
  • Agriculture accounts for about 15% of the total export earnings and provides raw material to a large number of Industries (textiles, silk, sugar, rice, flour mills, milk products).
  • The agriculture sector acts as a wall in maintaining food security and in the process, national security as well. 
  • The allied sectors like horticulture, animal husbandry, dairy and fisheries, have an important role in improving the overall economic conditions and health and nutrition of the rural masses. 
  • To maintain the ecological balance, there is need for sustainable and balanced development of agriculture and allied sectors.
  • Agriculture maintains a biological equilibrium in nature. 
  • Satisfactory agricultural production brings peace, prosperity, harmony, health and wealth to individuals of a nation by driving away distrust, discord and anarchy.
  • Through white revolution, milk production quadrupled from 17 million tonnes at independence to 108.5 million tonnes. 
  • Through blue revolution, fish production rose from 0.75 million tonnes to nearly 7.6 million tonnes during the last five decades. 
  • Through yellow revolution, oil seed production increased 5 times (from 5 million tonnes to 25 million tonnes) since independence. 
  • Similarly, the egg production increased from 2 billion at independence to 28 billion, sugarcane production from 57 million tonnes to 282 million tonnes, cotton production from 3 million bales to 32 million bales which shows our sign of progress. 
  • India is the largest producer of fruits in the world. India is the second largest producer of milk and vegetable