Agriculture: Introduction and Scope


  • The term Agriculture is derived from two Latin words ager or agri meaning soil and cultura meaning cultivation. 
  • Agriculture is an applied science which encompasses all aspects of crop production including horticulture, livestock rearing, fisheries, forestry, etc. 
  • Agriculture is defined as an art, science and business of producing crops and livestock for economic purposes.

  • With a 16% contribution to the gross domestic product (GDP), agriculture still provides livelihood support to about two-thirds of country's population
  • The sector provides employment to 58% of country's work force and is the single largest private sector occupation. 
  • Agriculture accounts for about 15% of the total export earnings and provides raw material to a large number of Industries (textiles, silk, sugar, rice, flour mills, milk products).
  • The agriculture sector acts as a wall in maintaining food security and in the process, national security as well. 
  • The allied sectors like horticulture, animal husbandry, dairy and fisheries, have an important role in improving the overall economic conditions and health and nutrition of the rural masses. 
  • To maintain the ecological balance, there is need for sustainable and balanced development of agriculture and allied sectors.
  • Agriculture maintains a biological equilibrium in nature. 
  • Satisfactory agricultural production brings peace, prosperity, harmony, health and wealth to individuals of a nation by driving away distrust, discord and anarchy.
  • Through white revolution, milk production quadrupled from 17 million tonnes at independence to 108.5 million tonnes. 
  • Through blue revolution, fish production rose from 0.75 million tonnes to nearly 7.6 million tonnes during the last five decades. 
  • Through yellow revolution, oil seed production increased 5 times (from 5 million tonnes to 25 million tonnes) since independence. 
  • Similarly, the egg production increased from 2 billion at independence to 28 billion, sugarcane production from 57 million tonnes to 282 million tonnes, cotton production from 3 million bales to 32 million bales which shows our sign of progress. 
  • India is the largest producer of fruits in the world. India is the second largest producer of milk and vegetable